Comprehensive Homeopathy Fact Sheet

By Timothy Fior, M.D., A.B.F.P., D.Ht.

1. What is homeopathy?

Homeopathy is an over 200 year old system of medical therapy and prevention that is based on the knowledge and application of medicines contained in the U.S. FDA-recognized Homeopathic Pharmacopœia of the United States. It is a scientific therapeutic method that embodies a philosophy of understanding people and illness in a holistic context with the goal of promoting optimal health and healing.

Homeopathic medicines are applied on the basis of the law of similars. The truth of this law has been verified experimentally and clinically for the last 200 years. While German physician Samuel Hahnemann codified this principle in 1796 into a system of medicine that he called homeopathy, from the Greek, omoiou (like) and pathos (disease), the observation of this principle dates to Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.). Resolution of an illness occurs when the sick individual is given a small dose of a medicine capable of producing similar symptoms in a healthy prover. Besides using the law of similars and the minimum necessary dose, homeopathy also uses the principle of using one medicine at a time. With homeopathic care, an individual’s susceptibility to acute or chronic disease is lessened and health is restored. In homeopathy, health is viewed as a state of physical, mental, emotional and social balance or equilibrium and not merely the absence of disease or pathologic signs and symptoms.

Homeopathy is a medical specialty that is practiced by several hundred MDs and DOs in the United States. There is a separate board certification for MDs and DOs who practice homeopathy, which is called the D.Ht. (Diplomate in Homeotherapeutics).

2. Is homeopathy the same as herbal medicine?

This is a common misperception, and although there are some similarities between homeopathy and herbal medicine, there are more differences than similarities. First, homeopathic remedies are regulated by the FDA as drugs, and are legally recognized as drugs in all 50 states. There is a separate pharmacopoeia for homeopathic “drugs” called the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (HPUS). To be labeled as a drug currently, the FDA requires proof of safety and efficacy. Herbal medicines are regulated under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) (1) (1) as food supplements, and there is no need to prove safety or efficacy. Herbal products can legally vary by 10,000% with regard to the content of active ingredients and can have contaminants. Only if an herb has proven harmful, like Ephedra, can it be removed from the marked by the FDA. Because homeopathic remedies are regulated as drugs, standardization is not an issue.

Second, although homeopathic remedies can be made from plants like herbs, homeopathic remedies can also be made from minerals and animal products.

Thirdly, homeopathic drugs or remedies are prepared in a very special way by repeated dilution and succussion or shaking which makes them the safest medicines available. Over a million times safer (2) than conventional drugs and many times safer than herbal tinctures or pills. To quote one author (2), “In 1995, there were 2 million contacts with Poison Control Centers in the United States. There were 1 million emergency room visits for treatment of poisoning, of which 79,000 were for poisoning from analgesic, antipyretic, and antirheumatic medications. A MedLine search in June 2000 uncovered no reports of poisoning from a homeopathic medicine in the United States from 1995 to 2000.”

Finally, the way that homeopathic remedies are prescribed is completely different than either herbal or conventional medicines. Herbal or conventional medicines are prescribed for a certain disease or condition. Homeopathic remedies are prescribed according to the “Law of Similars”, that is, according to the similarity of symptoms which the remedy can cause in healthy people. In conventional medicine we have antibiotics and antihypertensives, etc. In herbal medicine we have Echinacea for sore throats, St. John’s Wort for depression, etc. In homeopathy, there are NO such specifics. Each patient with sore throat, depression, and hypertension will require their own unique remedy and dosage which is found by applying the law of similars.

3. How does homeopathy differ from conventional medicine?

Homeopathy differs from conventional medicine because of it’s holistic perspectitve and constant individualization and emphasis on recovery of health. Let’s look at an example: the common cough.

First, we must accept that all symptoms, no matter how uncomfortable they are, represent the body’s attempt to restore itself to health. Instead of looking upon the symptoms as something wrong which must be set right, we see them as signs of the way the body is attempting to help itself. Instead of trying to stop the cough with suppressants, as conventional medicine does, a homeopath will give a remedy that will cause a cough in a healthy person, and thus stimulate the ill body to restore itself.

Second, we must look at the totality of the symptoms presented. We each experience a cough in our unique way. Yet conventional medicine acts as if all coughs were alike. It therefore offers a series of suppressive drugs something to suppress the cough, something to dry the mucus, something to lower the histamine level, something to ease falling asleep.

Homeopathy, on the other hand, looks for the one substance that will cause similar symptoms in a healthy person. The person with a cough characterized by being worse when breathing cold air, and sounding like a deep bark, will need a quite different remedy than the person whose cough is loose in the morning, dry in the evening, and better when sitting up in bed. We characterize both as “coughs” but they are different illnesses in the individuals, and therefore require different homeopathic treatment.

In conventional medical thought, health is seen simply as the absence of disease. You assume that you are healthy if there is nothing wrong with you. To a person versed in homeopathy, health is much more than that. A healthy person is a person who is free on all levels: physical, emotional, and mental. Obviously, a person with a broken leg is not free, on the physical level, to move around. But on a more subtle level, a person who cannot eat certain foods or is allergic to certain materials is also experiencing a lack of freedom. It is a good emotional release to cry at a “tear jerker” movie, but someone who continues to cry for several weeks afterwards is experiencing a lack of freedom on the emotional level. Likewise, a person who cannot absorb what he has read or cannot remember day to day appointments is experiencing a restriction on the mental level. The homeopath recognizes such limitations and attempts, through the use of the properly selected remedies, to restore the person to health and freedom.

A final important difference exists between conventional medical therapy and homeopathy. In conventional therapy, the aim often is to control the illness through regular use of medical substances, even if the medication is nothing more than vitamins. If the medication is withdrawn, however, the person returns to illness. There has been no cure. A person who takes a pill for allergies every day is not undergoing a cure but is only controlling the symptoms. Homeopathy’s aim is the cure: “The complete restoration of perfect health,” as Dr. Samuel Hahnemann said. The goal is to increase the patients health to the point that no further medicine is needed.

4. What are homeopathic medicines?

Homeopathic medicines are drug products made by homeopathic pharmacies in accordance with the processes described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, the official manufacturing manual recognized by the FDA. The substances may be made from plants such as aconite, dandelion, plantain; from minerals such as iron phosphate, arsenic oxide, sodium chloride; from animals such as the venom of a number of poisonous snakes, or the ink of the cuttlefish; or even from chemical drugs such as penicillin or streptomycin. These substances are diluted carefully until little if any of the original remains.

A plant substance, for example, is mixed in alcohol to obtain a tincture. One drop of the tincture is mixed with 99 drops of alcohol (to achieve a ratio of 1:100) and the mixture is strongly shaken. This shaking process is known as succussion. The final bottle is labeled as “1C.” One drop of this 1C is then mixed with 99 drops of alcohol and the process is repeated to make a 2C. By the time the 3C is reached, the dilution is 1 part in 1 million! Small globules made from sugar are then saturated with the liquid dilution. These globules constitute the homeopathic medicine. Dilutions or potencies commonly used (with their corresponding dilutions) include:

Dilution/Potency Dilution factor
6C 10-12
30C 10-60
200C 10-400
1M or 1000C 10-2000

Although such infinitesimal quantities are considered by some to be no more than placebos, the clinical experience of homeopathy shows that the infinitesimal dose is effective: it works upon unconscious people and infants, and it even works on animals. Also, there are numerous basic science studies showing the biological activity of these infinitesimal potencies. (3, 4) (5)

It is important to remember, however, that a medicine is homeopathic only if it is taken based upon the similar nature of the medicine to the illness. A medicine labeled as “homeopathic” will work only if it is homeopathic to the symptoms presented.

5. How are homeopathic remedies prescribed?

The selection of any homeopathic remedy is made on the totality of the symptoms presented by the patient. Any remedy may be used for any condition if the symptoms generated by the remedy match the symptoms experienced by the patient.

There are several homeopathic remedies that may be considered in cases of colds and flu: Aconite or Wolf’s bane, is thought of in any case in which the symptoms come on suddenly, especially if exposure to cold might be a causative factor. There could be a cough or sneezing, but the main guiding point is the suddenness of the onset. Mentally, the person is fearful – afraid he will die – he is overcome by the suddenness of the attack. A child, out playing in the snow, awakens screaming at 2 a.m. (a common time reference for this remedy) with a cough and high fever, or a man, out shoveling snow, suddenly comes down with a very high fever and is fearful he will die. Both cases call for Aconite.

Another remedy characterized by suddenness of onset is Belladonna, the deadly nightshade. The symptoms are characterized by redness and heat. The fever is high, the face is red, the pulse can be seen in the veins of the neck. The eyes are dilated. The person is very sensitive to slight movement and noise. Many old time doctors, when seeing a suspected case for Belladonna, would bump against the bed to see if the patient was sensitive to this slight movement. The patient is sometimes almost delirious and sees monsters. The throat is usually swollen, the glands are swollen, and the ear might be involved. For most children’s earaches, Belladonna would be the first remedy of which one would think especially if the ache is throbbing and on the right side.

6. What is the legal status of homeopathy?

Historically in the United States of America, the manufacture and the sale of drugs are regulated at the federal level and the physician practice of medicine is regulated at the state level.

Homeopathic medicines have been available and have been used safely and effectively in this country for over a century prior to the enactment of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 (21 U.S.C. § 301. See attachment #1). The actions, at the time, of homeopathic physician and U.S. Senator Dr. Royal S. Copeland (1868-1938), ensured the inclusion of homeopathic medicines in that act as drugs, both prescription and non-prescription (SEC. 201. (g)(1) of the Act 21 U.S.C. §321. See atthmt #2). The inclusion of homeopathic pharmaceuticals in that act means that the FDA is charged with regulating homeopathic, as well as allopathic (i.e. conventional) medicines, and, therefore, recognizes uniformly the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (HPUS) and the USP (which contains all conventional medicines).

7. Do the states recognize homeopathy?

Yes, all fifty states recognize homeopathic remedies are drugs as part of state law. Thus, MDs and DOs who may use drugs to treat illnesses are able to use homeopathic remedies for treatment in each of the 50 states. The Illinois Compiled Statutes (ILCS) define a “drug” as “(1) articles recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia – National Formulary, official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, United States Dispensatory, or Remington’s Practice of Pharmacy, or any supplement to any of them. {(410 ILCS 620/2.4) (from Ch. 56 1/2, par. 502.4) Sec. 2.4.}

Homeopathy practice acts currently exist in three states—Arizona, Connecticut, and Nevada. The Arizona and Nevada statutes were enacted in 1980 and 1983 respectively. The Connecticut act dates from 1902. Both Arizona and Nevada have independent homeopathy boards. In Connecticut, the state Homeopathic Medical Examining Board functions principally as an advisory unit to the state Department of Public Health, but has independent authority to hear and decide matters concerning practitioners. (1) In states that do not have homeopathy practice acts, practice rights for homeopathy are recognized within the scope of practice for other health care professions (e.g. MDs and DOs in Illinois).

8. Are homeopathic medicines FDA approved?

Yes, as already mentioned in #6 above.

The federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act deems articles listed in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (HPUS) as “drugs” and recognizes HPUS as the official compendium of standards for source, composition, and preparation of homeopathic products. Policy guidelines published by the FDA in 1988 note the transition of the homeopathic drug market in the US from a historically limited position to a multimillion dollar industry and indicate that homeopathic products offered for the treatment of serious diseases must be dispensed under the care of a licensed practitioner. For self-limiting conditions that are recognizable by consumers, homeopathic preparations may be marketed over-the-counter.

Homeopathic drugs must meet standards specified in the HPUS for strength, quality, and purity and comply with labeling, packaging, and manufacturing requirements specified in the federal act and applicable regulations. In recognition of the unique, highly diluted nature of homeopathic drug preparations, the FDA exempts these products from rules concerning expiration dating, as well as requirements for laboratory testing to determine the identity and strength of each active ingredient before distribution of the product. (1)

9. What is the HPUS?

The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (HPUS) was first published in 1897 by the American Institute of Homeopathy (1844), the oldest extant national medical association in the United States. The HPUS is now published under the separately incorporated auspices of the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States (1981(501(c)(3)). Among the purposes for which the HPCUS is organized are the following: “…to research and obtain a thorough knowledge of the pathogenicity of each drug offered for inclusion in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States as a homeopathic drug; to develop criteria for eligibility of drugs for inclusion in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States…” The HPUS is declared a legal source of information on drug products as an “official compendium” in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (SEC. 201. (j) of the Act 21 U.S.C. §321. See atthmt #2). The HPUS is also recognized in the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. § 802 See atthmt #3).

10. Do the manufacturers of Homeopathic medicines have to follow Good Manufacturing Practices?

Yes.

Official homeopathic medications, which may carry a legend HPUS on their label (See atthmt #4 ), are manufactured under Good Manufacturing Practices according to methods set forth in the General Pharmacy section of the HPUS. Therefore, such medicines are uniform in their preparation, production, and labeling and by their inclusion therein, they come under the ultimate legal sanction of the FDA (Act, 21U.S.C. SEC. 501[351](b), SEC. 502[352](e)(3), SEC.502[352](g). See atthmt #5). Moreover, since in their preparation, homeopathic medical products are serially diluted and succussed, the active ingredient is present in minute amounts which would not prompt drug interactions with conventional medications, whether prescription or non-prescription. This is in contradistinction to phytopharmaceuticals, also termed herbal preparations, in which such drug interaction may present itself, e.g., ginkgo biloba and aspirin. While homeopathic medicine is a holistic, natural branch of complementary medicine whose medicinal sources may be botanical (including herbs), animal and mineral, homeopathy is not naturopathy or herbology and does not include the prescribing of phytopharmaceuticals.

11. Are homeopathic medicines regulated as non-prescription (OTC) or prescription drugs?

Actually, both.

Non-prescription and prescription (OTC/Rx) homeopathic drugs are regulated by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ( FDCA) as promulgated in the regulatory document, the Compliance Policy Guide, 05/88. (FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION Compliance Policy Guides, Guide 7132.15, renamed 400.400 . See atthmt #6). Many combination homeopathic proprietaries and lower potency single remedy homeopathic medications are readily available to the public for use in minor self-limited conditions in health food stores, whole food supermarkets, and chain grocery stores and pharmacies. These products are analogous to allopathic OTC proprietaries and, as such, should be viewed in a like manner by oversight committees. Homeopathic drugs offered for non-OTC conditions must be marketed as prescriptions (See atthmt #6). Furthermore, the CPG exempts homeopathic drugs from expiration date labeling.

12. Are homeopathic remedies and homeopathy safe?

That homeopathic therapeutics lack the potential for life threatening side effects is generally accepted by users and critics alike. Because of the small doses, almost all authorities assume that homeopathy is safe as long as patients also receive good conventional care and that it will not interact with conventional drugs. (6) It has been used in pregnancy and at the extremes of life without any reported incidences of harm. (7) (8)

Occasionally, there can be an initial aggravation of symptoms or a return of old symptoms during the course of treatment, which can be distressing to patients but is not harmful. Further research needs to be done to determine what part of this is from patients’ expectations. There is a possible danger of homeopathy being misapplied or causing a delay in the administration of effective conventional treatments, but this risk is not intrinsic to homeopathy, but rather to the given system of medical delivery in which it is used. This is why it is important that physicians learn about homeopathy, so that they can advise patients knowledgeably about the proper applications of homeopathic medicines.

Evidence regarding the safety of homeopathic medicine can be found in a systematic review of clinical trials and case reports on the Bandolier website in a section entitled “Homeopathy and adverse effects.” Their clinical bottom line states, “Homeopathy remedies in high dilutions appear to be relatively safe. The mean incidence of adverse effects was higher with homeopathy than with placebo, but all were mild and transient (and tended to be symptoms described as aggravation of the pre-existing symptoms). However, adverse event data is poorly and inconsistently, collected and reported so this conclusion should be interpreted with caution.

It is common belief that homeopathic remedies are safe due to the high dilution of the original substance. Adverse events of drugs in general are poorly reported in the medical literature.” This review included: 19 clinical trial reports, 19 case (or case series) reports and 15 homeopathic pathogenetic trials. (9)

Additionally the safety of homeopathic remedies sold in this country is assured in the manufacturing process because all homeopathic remedies are regulated by the FDA as drugs, and thus must meet rigid manufacturing and safety standards set forth in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. FDA compliance policy guide 7132.15 states that “The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) recognizes as official the drugs and standards in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia of the United States.”

A final factor insuring the safety of homeopathic remedies is the fact that many of the commonly prescribed remedies (e.g. Belladonna, Aconite, Calcarea carbonica, Pulsatilla, etc.) have been prescribed consistently for 200 years or more by hundreds of thousands of physicians worldwide. Such a long prescribing history virtually assures that any rare, serious side effects would be recognized. This is in stark contrast to conventional drugs. Many of the most commonly prescribed conventional drugs have only been available a few years. The withdrawal of Vioxx from the market shows the inherent risk in using new medicines which have not been thoroughly tested in the population. Only recently have researchers and the public become aware of the true “paucity of information on the true long-term effects of these drugs (COX-2 inhibitors like Vioxx, Celebrex, and Bextra) as a class.” (10)

13. Who is a homeopathic physician?

A homeopathic physician is a medical or an osteopathic physician who has added homeopathic medicine to his/her armamentarium through organized education and/or self-study. All licensed physicians legally can practice homeopathy under their conventional license, although three states (Connecticut, Arizona, and Nevada) have separate licensing boards for homeopathy which must grant approval within their jurisdiction.

14. Is there a board certification in homeopathy for physicians?

Yes, there is.

After having experienced three years of homeopathic medical practice, medical or osteopathic physicians are eligible to seek candidacy for examination by the separately incorporated homeopathic medical specialty certifying board, the American Board of Homeotherapeutics (1960). Successful candidates become Diplomates of the American Board of Homeotherapeutics and may affix the designation D.Ht. after their name. They must maintain certain criteria of continuing homeopathic education and submission of Journal articles annually to maintain their Diplomate status.

The original certification process is a rigorous one. Only those with three years of medical practice using homeopathy and active medical licensure may apply. Then the applicant must present 10 cases in writing which have been followed for six months to two years. Finally, a written and oral test are taken which includes seeing a live patient at the examination site, taking a history and physical, and discussing treatment with the test proctor. This author has recertified twice for Family Practice, and that test was a breeze compared to the homeopathic certification exam.

Recently, the American Board of Homeotherapeutics began offering a Primary Care Certificate in Homeopathy for physicians who have taken at least 30 hours of homeopathic coursework. This certifies the practitioner is competent to use homeopathy in acute conditions.

15. Are homeopathic professional courses recognized by established medical CME providers and is CME credit awarded for these courses?

Yes, established medical CME providers do recognize and grant credit for homeopathic professional courses. For example, for over 10 years, the American Academy of Family Practice (one of the three largest CME accrediting organizations for physicians in the US) has granted elective credit for various homeopathic CME courses. In Illinois, in March 2005 there is one homeopathic course already listed in the AAFP CME calendar. (11) In 2004, in Chicago, the Primary Care Homeopathy course was approved by the AAFP for 36 elective CME credits.

16. Have any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) been done using homeopathic medicines?

Yes, today about 300 RCTs (12) have been done in humans looking at the effects of homeopathic remedies in various clinical situations. (2) Recently, “A Critical Overview of Homeopathy” was published in the Annals of Internal Medicine (6) which reviews the clinical research that has been done to date on homeopathy. This article concludes that “there is also evidence form randomized, controlled trials that homeopathy may be effective for the treatment of influenza, allergies, postoperative ileus, and childhood diarrhea. . . . Homeopathy deserves an open-minded opportunity to demonstrate its value by using evidence-based principles.” While more research is obviously needed this situation also exists in conventional medicine, where it has been estimated that only about 15% of medical interventions are supported by solid scientific evidence. (13) In conventional medicine, when we lack evidence-based answers we rely on clinical experience. The same is also true in homeopathy. And in homeopathy we have over 200 years of published and accumulated clinical experience on which to base treatment decisions.

Basic science research has also shown that homeopathic remedies have biologic activity. (5) (2) (14) Some of this positive research has been replicated in multiple labs, which argues strongly that these are reproducible effects. (3) An elegant study published by Wayne Jonas recently (15) showed that a homeopathically prepared dilution of the tularemia organism was partially protective (protection rates averaged 22% over controls) for mice exposed to Franciscella tularensis. The author concluded that homeopathy could be useful for prevention or treatment of exposure to bioterrorism agents or emerging infectious diseases for which there is no conventional treatment or immunization.

17. Is the clinical efficacy of homeopathy reproducible and what are some examples of relevant clinical trials in homeopathy?

David Reilly (16) published a third trial in 1994 showing that homeopathic immunotherapy was more effective than placebo (p=0.003) in the treatment of allergic asthma. When he combined the results of this study with two prior positive studies of homeopathic immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis, he obtained an even more impressive p=0.0004 in favor of homeopathy. That is, there were only 4 chances out of 10,000 that these results could be due to chance alone. He concluded that these results suggest that either homeopathy works or that the clinical trial does not. If homeopathy is a placebo then the trial is producing false positive results, which are predictable and reproducible, at a rate which would undermine its use as a scientific tool for assessing orthodox treatments. More recently, Reilly’s group published a fourth RCT of homoeopathy versus placebo in perennial allergic rhinitis with an overview of the four trial series. (17) Again, the homoeopathy group had a significant objective improvement in nasal airflow compared with the placebo group. Addition of these results to those of the three previous trials showed a mean symptom reduction on visual analogue scores of 28% for homoeopathy compared with 3% for placebo (95% confidence interval). Their conclusion was that the objective results reinforce earlier evidence that homoeopathic dilutions differ from placebo.

Jennifer Jacobs’ study (18) was the first homeopathic study published in a conventional peer reviewed U.S. medical journal. This study showed a “statistically significant decrease in the duration of diarrhea in the treatment group” suggesting “that homeopathic treatment might be useful in acute childhood diarrhea.” She has since then replicated this study in another site, again with positive results. (19) A positive meta-analysis of the three diarrhea studies she has done to date has also been published. (20)

Another recent homeopathic RCT published in a U.S. peer reviewed journal (21) presented outcomes of four months of treatment of 50 subjects with post concussion syndrome. These subjects remained symptomatic despite conventional therapies for years (mean 3.4 yrs) post injury. Classical homeopathic treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements in ten major symptoms of post-concussion syndrome (p=.06) and seventeen measures of difficult functioning (p=.0008). This research is significant, because there are no proven treatments for mild traumatic brain injury currently.

18. How well researched is homeopathy compared to other fields in complementary and alternative medicine?

Homeopathy is one of the BEST RESEARCHED areas in complementary and alternative medicine.

A group commissioned by Prince Charles to examine CAM reviewed the research base of various fields in CAM. They rated the evidence base for 13 different clinical conditions for each of the main fields in CAM. Upon totaling the scores, homeopathy obtained a total score of 38 which was second only to mind-body medicine and hypnotherapy (which totaled 40). The therapies below homeopathy in total research scores were acupuncture (37), nutritional medicine (30), herbal medicine (26), and osteopathy/chiropractic (19). (22) It is our experience, that many scientists and physicians are totally unaware of the relatively strong research foundation in homeopathy.
Mind-body medicine and hypnosis have virtually been accepted into conventional medicine and are even practiced in the hospital now. Homeopathy is better researched that osteopathy and chiropractic which both have numerous medical schools across the US and are reimbursable by most insurances, and by many are considered mainstream.

19. Are there national and state homeopathic organizations for medical professionals?

Yes. The national organization is called the American Institute of Homeopathy and was founded in 1844. It is the oldest extant medical association in the US, having been founded two years before the AMA was founded in 1846. The AIH performed vital functions in the professional homeopathic movement, setting standards for practitioners, and raising the standards for homeopathic medical education at homeopathic medical schools in the US. In 1897, the American Institute of Homeopathy published the first homeopathic pharmacopeia in the United States, the Pharmacopeia of the American Institute of Homeopathy. The official quarterly publication of the AIH is presently the American Journal of Homeopathic Medicine (AJHM). The AJHM is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, specifically intended to meet the needs of physicians involved in the specialty of homeopathy. (23)

Additionally, there are several state homeopathic medical organizations for MDs and DOs. The Illinois Homeopathic Medical Association (IHMA) is the professional homeopathic organization in Illinois. It was reincorporated in 1992 as a non-for-profit corporation under section 501(c)6 of the Internal Revenue code. The IHMA’s objectives are threefold: 1) to promote the science of homeopathic medicine, 2) to encourage homeopathic medical research and 3) to establish standards of homeopathic medical education. There are two categories of active membership: 1) regular-which consists of licensed MDs, DOs, DCs, DDSs in practice and 2) in-training-which consists of MDs, DOs, DCs, DDSs who are still in training. Associate membership is offered to other licensed health professionals. Finally, student membership is for those enrolled in medical schools leading toward the MD, DO, DC, or DDS degree. The IHMA has had yearly meetings since the fall of 1992, and has sponsored numerous homeopathic conferences featuring some of the world’s leading homeopathic practitioners.

The Illinois State Homoeopathic Medical Association was first organized in Peoria on December 6, 1855 and was first incorporated on October 24, 1881. (24)

For more great information about homeopathy, visit the website for the National Center for Homeopathy at www.homeopathic.org.

© Prepared by Timothy W. Fior, M.D., A.B.F.P., D.Ht.
1/27/05

Comments (2)

heya – thanks for the link but…this site hasn’t officially launched yet. would you mind taking post off your site and then putting back up when we’re official.

thanks so much,

Glenn

Could you please provide the bibliography so I can obtain the 24 citations for this article?

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