By James Gormley, Senior Policy Advisor, Citizens for Health
On January 4th, 2011, the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) was signed into law. It included a number of requirements, including one that the FDA issue industry guidance as to when companies need to submit New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) notifications to the agency and when they do not, and about 186 calendar days after that, on July 1st, the FDA issued a draft guidance on new dietary ingredients.
What is all this about old and new dietary ingredients? Old dietary ingredients (ODIs) are nutritional ingredients ? herbal extracts and nutrients ? that were sold prior to 1994 and were considered to be “grandfathered in,” and “generally recognized as safe” when NDI submissions were first required, so manufacturers did not need to worry about ingredients that were always in the food supply in foods or food-based supplements.
NDIs, on the other hand, were supposed to be completely new compounds – often hybrids of nutrients – never before seen in nature in exactly that form. Notwithstanding, this itself was always considered a strange requirement, however, since many safe nutrients are often combined with other safe, natural substances that help the mineral or vitamin’s absorption, so how could these benign compounds be considered “new” when compared to products of genetically engineered bacterial fermentation, for example.
So, many companies were advised by legal and industry experts to not submit NDI notifications since the products in question were exempt from the requirements since the individual parts of the compound were considered safe anyway. On top of that, the FDA was rejecting so many NDI submissions on administrative grounds alone that companies understandably began to see the NDI process and non-objection threshold as impenetrable, indeed.
Fast forward to this guidance, which was actually originally mandated in our main dietary supplement law, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (or DSHEA), but it has somehow taken the FDA 17 years to get around to it.
The FDA and its apologists are saying that this is no big surprise and has been a long time in the making. Be that as it may, natural products industry organizations have raised a number of important objections to the dangers to innovation posed by this guidance and policy and procedures that may well follow from it.
“We believe the draft guidance does not match Congress’ clear intent that products made from ingredients on the market prior to DSHEA should remain on the market,” noted the Natural Products Association in a July 6th statement.
As the “decision tree” provided by the FDA with this guidance makes clear, if a new manufacturing process, extraction method or plant part is used, then it is a new dietary ingredient!
This is absurd! This means that if hexane or other harsh solvents were used in the past, and safer solvents are used today that better preserve the integrity of the ingredients (such as grain alcohol or glycerin), that these solvents now render the ingredients as NDIseven though the extracts are closer to what’s growing in the soil than how it was extracted in 1993!
As Steve Mister of the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN) said to Nutraingredients-usa.com, “They are trying to freeze industry in 1994 and lock us into extraction processed used 20 years ago.”
The guidance also states that synthetic versions of natural ingredients are also NDIs. What!? Virtually every product sold today includes synthesized, exactly bio-identical versions of what is found in a plant, nut, seed, fruit or soil. We are not talking artificial ingredients here; think vitamin C, as that’s what we’re talking about. If this is followed by FDA, most supplement ingredients and supplements containing them could eventually get their manufacturers slammed with notices of failure to submit a 75-day pre-market NDI notification, likely since most companies have been selling these ingredients and products for 17 years!
Attorney Marc Ullman, of Ullman, Shapiro & Ullman, told Nutraingredients-usa.com that this position on so-called synthetic nutrients is “preposterous, absolute nonsense” and with “no basis in science.”
In addition, the safety testing requirements recommended for NDIs go way beyond anything that could be reasonably required for herbal ingredients and nutrients. These over-the-top standards would be similar to what is required of food additives. It would not provide more safety; it would merely force companies to spend millions on unnecessary tests on ingredients that have been in the food supply for 10,000 years.
According to Ullman in Natural Products Insider, the guidance shows that FDA is taking an “incredibly narrow view of what can be considered a dietary ingredient and an incredibly overbroad view of what would require the submission of an NDI notification.”
What do consumers and retailers need to be aware of regarding this guidance? It is not law, not regulation and not binding . . . however, and this is a biggie . . . it gives a very clear picture of the intent of the FDA to use these side-door and back-door routes to undermine and effectively dismantle DSHEA, the law that protects our right to safe and effective dietary supplements.
If FDA were allowed to interpret the law in this way, it would endanger thousands of products and scores of categories of supplements, extracts and tinctures. The ones that survived would be locked into pre-1994-era processing and manufacturing standards, and innovation would be almost totally blocked, since any new advances used with existing ingredients would require participation in the draconian NDI notification process.
Gormley Take-Away: What do we all need to do? We need to file a comment with the FDA telling them to withdraw this notification as it is an outrageous, and unacceptable, approach to re-classifying hundreds, if not thousands, of safe dietary supplement ingredients. If you agree, let the FDA know that you will not stand for this egregious attempt to roll back the clock on innovation by nearly 20 years, to grievously harm the health food industry and to set the stage for far less choice and for virtually no more cutting edge products going forward.